Katarmal Sun Temple – Interesting, Intriguing, Invisible

passerby mentioned the name ‘Surya Mandir of Katarmal’ when I was whiling away my time in Kasar Devi near Almora in Uttarakhand. I had earlier thought that Konark was the only Sun Temple in India but over a period of time it was known that there are Sun Temples in Modhera, Gujarat, Martand, Kashmir and also in the small town of Osian in Rajasthan.

Katarmal is a small village that lies on the Ranikhet road in Kumaon and the temple can be accessed by a 20 minute walk from the main road. We set off on a Royal Enfield Motorcycle from Almora in the morning and were pretty famished by the time we reached the hamlet of Kosi. I was quite excited about the prospect of seeing this 12th Century wonder that was said to be left half built.


Legend says that ‘It was built by the Pandavas in one night and when the first rays of the morning lit the sky, the construction was halted and it has remained so ever since. This is the land of the lores of Pandavas. That and the fact that the terrain of this region has proved to be uninviting for the invaders. Except for an abortive attempt by a Rohilla chieftain and the Anglo-Tibet war, Kumaon has not witnessed any major battles. Though the region has always been engulfed by internal strife between the Kumaonis and the Garhwalis.

A dilapidated signboard by the ASI on the dirt track increased the sense of wonder and the first glimpse of the temple complex did not disappoint at all. It was a grand and colossal structure that oddly reminded me of the Parthenon in Greece!


There were 44 small temples surrounding the main shrine but none of them had any idols inside them. Some of them seemed to have been damaged in an attack but as I have mentioned there is no history pertaining to the same. Some of the smaller shrines seemed to be leaning, while one of them was only balanced on a single pillar. I wondered if the Archaeological Survey of India did anything other than just putting up 3-4 boards in and around the temple complex.

From 7th Century AD to 12th Century AD Kumaon witnessed a sustained period of great temples being built by various rulers. The Katyuri dynasty has been credited for most of them, and even this Sun temple was built by the Katyuri king Katarmalla. The main deity of the sun temple is Surya –  called Vraddha Aditya (Old Sun God) here.


IMG_1716 (1)
Vraddha Aditya or Surya, the main deity. Picture courtesy: Mr Niraj Kumar Verma


The temple is perched at a height of 2100 m on a small hillock with an endless view of the valley on the front side. It has been designed such that on few days especially during the equinoxes, the first rays of the sun fall on the deity inside the Garbhagriha. There’s a small hole punched in one of the temples from where the first light permeates through and casts its light on the idol making it a glorious sight.


An azure sky behind the main temple creates a perfect backdrop. The setting is quite spectacular with a cool breeze blowing even on an otherwise hot day in May.  Various temple pieces like the Amalakas are found scattered in the courtyard. There is a spectator too, a lone tree that continues to witness the glories and vagaries of time. 


The temples of Kumaon from this period used huge stones instead of bricks, some of them so humongous that only the Gods are believed to have carried them so far ! (Perhaps thats why the local legend of so many of these temples to have been built by the Pandavas). These stones were quarried from the nearby valley and hauled upto the site where they were cut and carved. This temple is said to be one of the biggest and tallest in the entire Kumaon region. The style of architecture of the temple is Nagara style.

 The temple had intricately carved wooden doors and pillars that were shifted to the National Museum in Delhi after the theft of a priceless 10th century idol from the temple premises.

 The wooden door and pillars of the Katarmal Sun Temple displayed at the National Museum in Delhi. Pictures courtesy: Mr Niraj Kumar Verma

What really surprised me is that inspite of being both a rare and renowned heritage site with close proximity to the very touristy Almora, we met no other visitor during the time that we were there. There was no restaurant or dhaba near the temple and it sure looked like a place that no one cared about.  As a nation, we really don’t seem to be quite proud or caring of its rich heritage and culture. The same tourists who go gaga on seeing monuments when in a western country are not even aware of the rich architectural heritage that lies in their vicinity. Although I must admit; the monuments in our country are rarely well maintained and even basic facilities sometimes don’t exist at heritage sites.

Author – Shubham Mansingka

The author is a travel blogger and can be reached here



24 thoughts on “Katarmal Sun Temple – Interesting, Intriguing, Invisible”

  1. True indeed. India is so rich in it’s archeological extravaganza but there’s hardly any maintenance or advertising of such places. We are still miles away from giving due importance to our own culture.

    Liked by 2 people

  2. A wonderful read Shubham. Actually there are many Sun Temples in India being unnoticed. In Gujarat itself there are 40 Sun Temples reported. Your concern for protection is also close to our heart and we must go on reporting them.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. ”I wondered if the Archaeological Survey of India did anything other than just putting up 3-4 boards in and around the temple complex.”

    Don’t blame ASI always…… I do not agree with you, specially on above comment. You don’t know previous conservation works carried out by ASI regarding Katarmal Temple

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Nobody is blaming the ASI Niraj but when a monument is notified as that of national imporyance then it sure deserves more than a few signboards. Don’t you agree

      Liked by 1 person

      1. aap andaja bhi nahi laga sakte hain ke is site per conservation kitna muskil hai (there is no much water in katarmal village), pichle kuch saalo mai jab conservation hua to pani main road (Ranikhet Road) se laana padta tha. there are hundreds of problems on this site…………………….
        and our judgement on few boards…………
        There is no option to upload the before and after photos of the monument, otherwise I share few photographs…

        Liked by 2 people

      2. Himalaya ki god main pani ki samasya ? Iska toh andaza nahin tha Niraj. And of course, conservation at 2100 mtrs will never be easy. We would very much like to see the before and after pics. In fact Niraj, I will appreciate if you can email the pics to me. Virasat e Hind will want to highlight the good work done by ASI as well as the problems that the organisation faces at such sites. Our intention has always been to begin a meaningful dialogue that leads to co-operation

        Liked by 2 people

      3. sorry , mera maqsad aapka virodh karna nahi tha, hame bhi pata hai ke hamare kamiyan kya hai, laken kya karen hamare pahle ke officers ne jo bhe mehnat se kaam kiya wo baad me nahi ho paya, wo boards lagbhag 11-12 saal pahle lage the laken baad me kisi ne badalne ke koshis nahi ke, hamare sare acche kaam ek laparwahi se bekaar ho jate hai. Shayad aapne notice nahi kiya ke site per drinking water nahi hai, wo isliye ke waha pani ya pipe line bhi nahi hai, department ne toilet banwaya per pani nahi hai, sare villegers ek chote se noule (covered water spring- very common water structure in uttarakhand) se peene ka pane late hai wo bhi gavan se 2-3 KM door se……………………….. or bhi bahut kuch ahi kahne- sunne ke liye……… wo phir kabhi

        please share me the mail or any other link where I post at least 10-15 photo at one time for show..

        Liked by 2 people

  4. I have not been here but its on my list to visit when in Almora (hopefully soon)…… India has an extremely rich heritage. Hopefully we are able to work out a successful route map to bring them to the position they rightfully deserve!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Fingers crosssed on that one Monika. The intention here is just the same… to raise awareness and instill a sense of wonder that will root itself deep enough to allow action . How much will the government or ASI do ? We are responsible equally 😊

      Liked by 1 person

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